The following are the abstract of the articles included in this issue of the Philippine Geographic Journal:
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SLEEPING TYPHOONS BREAKING OUT OF THEIR COLONIAL COCOONS: CONVERSATIONS WITH FILIPINO FILMMAKERS ON CINEMA AND NATION
Geographers working in the intersection of film and nation acknowledge that cinema’s highly visual quality can represent and provide a setting to imagine a people’s collective notion of a nation and its various permutations: nationalism, imagined community, post-nationality, and others. This article solicited the insightful observations of Filipino filmmakers regarding their cinematic outputs and multiple views in filming the national. Conversations range from the role of the Marcoses’ huge influence in the fertile cinematic outputs that produced narratives that simultaneously affirm and challenge the idea of a nation to the uniqueness/difference that Philippine cinema can offer. The paper argues for a post-national cinematic articulation that decenters and destabilizes a unitary Filipino meta-narrative.
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UNDERSTANDING ROAD NETWORK ACCESSIBILITY AND CONNECTIVITY OF MANILA, MAKATI AND QUEZON CITY
Jan Michael B. Gomez, Christadelle Bazar & Daniel L. Mabazza
The Philippines, being a fragmented state, translates to several obstacles that have to be overcome if effective governance and distribution of goods and services among urban constituents are to be considered. In this country, provision of goods and services in particular is very dependent on road networks. In studying the road networks of Manila, Makati and Quezon City, which are central parts of the National Capital Region, it is the objective of the study to contribute to the literature on the study of road networks in the Philippines and on the practical application of Graph Theory. Using data acquired from the database of Arcview 3.x, shapefiles of road networks of the three cities were transformed into graphs using topographic transformation. Matrices were generated to obtain the graph theoretic indices needed in the study. The study shows that the accessibility and connectivity of nodes in the study areas and of the road networks of these cities in general are relatively low, reflecting the status of the Philippines as a developing country. If transportation is to be considered as one of the most important factors in influencing the pattern of economic activity and related activities, initiatives should be undertaken by policy makers to increase the connectivity of these road networks that will in turn enhance the ease of movement between the nodes.
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INSTITUTION AND SCALE IN ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE: AN INSTITUTIONAL ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS APPROACH
Environmental governance scholars have recognized the importance of building appropriate institutions to ensure sustainable governance of social-ecological systems. They propose that the scales of design, monitoring and enforcement of these institutions need to coincide with the scales of social and ecological processes. The field of institutional ecological economics, which places institutions at the center of analysis of ecological-economic interactions, provides an alternative viewpoint to neoclassical and environmental economic approaches to environmental issues through its emphasis on the two core concepts of interdependence and transaction costs. This paper reviews work published in the field of ecological economics and beyond to explore the importance of institutions in the study of social-ecological systems. It argues that engagement with the literature on scale can enrich institutional ecological economic approaches, specifically through consideration of how scales can influence interdependence and transaction costs in environmental governance. It presents a preliminary application of how scale can contribute to an institutional ecological economic analysis by taking the case study of overlapping coastal resource governance in a municipality in southern Luzon, Philippines. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how institutions and scales can be further conceptualized.
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PERCEPTION OF QUEZON CITY JAIL INMATES ON THE PROPOSED NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION INTEGRATED JAIL FACILITIES SYSTEM IN SAN MATEO, RIZAL
Emmanuel Garcia, Randel Latoza & Teresita Tajanlangit
Jail facilities in the Philippines, characterized by overcrowding and dilapidated structures, are generally below the set standards needed to carry out reformatory mandates for their inmates. The proposed National Capital Region Integrated Jail Facilities System is a rational response of the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology as it seeks to address the multifarious problems besetting the 23 Metro Manila jails. This study centered on the Quezon City jail and probed the inmates’ view regarding the proposed transfer to San Mateo, Rizal. The study found out that most inmates are in favor of the transfer of jail facilities to the outskirts of the metropolis. However, a good number do not favor the transfer as it would disturb the Pangkat system which is an organizational system among inmates marked by groupings and a hierarchical set-up of leadership and power play. Changing the physical set-up can lead to riots and rumbles as the otherwise stable current social system is disturbed. Nevertheless, the study concludes that there is really a need to provide a more modern facility that does not only provide comfort and safety to the prisoners but particularly facilitates their rehabilitation.
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LIVING WITH INCREASING FLOODS: INSIGHTS FROM A RURAL PHILIPPINE COMMUNITY
Jean-Christophe Gaillard, Michael R.M. Pangilinan,
Jake Rom Cadag & Virginie Le Masson
This article considers people’s way to cope with increasing flooding in a Philippine rural community.It relies on extensive fieldwork conducted between July and August 2006. It crosschecks data from different sources including interviews with key informants, a questionnaire-based survey, informal group discussions, passive and stationary observations and photographic documentation. Field work was completed by the collection of secondary written documents.The study emphasizes that the capacity of flood-affected people to cope with increasing hazard is rooted in their ability to make adjustments in their everyday lifestyle. Flood-affected people seldom rely on extraordinary measures to face nature’s extremes. People’s ability to adjust their daily life is deeply dependent on the strength of their livelihoods and social network. The kind and variety of livelihoods turned out to be a critical factor in securing the financial means to purchase enough food to sustain daily needs during a flooding episode. Social networking was also found to be critical in providing alternative support in a time of crisis.This paper fosters the use of community-based disaster risk reduction programs coupled with development objectives to enhance people’s capacity to cope with natural hazards. It further underlines the need to empower people to make them less vulnerable in the face of natural hazards through fair access to resources.This piece hopes to contribute to the understanding of how people cope with natural hazards in the Philippines and to provide an array of possible remedial strategies for community-based disaster risk reduction endeavors.